PS: Middle English Drama
Dozent: Achim Helbig; M.A.
Referentinnen: Christina Kirschbaum, Ines Henne
- Everyman is the best surviving example of the type of medieval drama known as the morality play
- The author is unknown
- Probably a translation of the Flemish play Elckerlijc which was written for a Rhetoricians´ festival in Antwerp held in 1495
- The English version is preserved in only four printed copies which date roughly from the period between 1508 and 1537
- Very short play of some 900 lines
- Both plays are a product of Catholic Europe (not of England or Holland in particular) and show the continental reformist religious movement
- Nowadays the German play Jedermann by Hugo von Hofmannsthal (between 1909 and 1911) is the best-known play following the example of the English Everyman. Since 1920 the Salzburger Festspiele are opened with Jedermann.
- In the beginning God complains about the sinful people in the world who pay more attention to wordly riches than to Christian values
- In God´s name Death has to tell Everyman that he has to go on a pilgrimage to his reckoning and he orders him to make a book of accounts for the judgement.
- As he is afraid to make this pilgrimage alone, he first asks Fellowship to accompany him. In the beginning Fellowship promises to do everything for him, but as soon as he realizes that it is a journey to death, he deserts Everyman.
- Then Everyman goes to his Kindred and his Cousin but they are not willing to come with him either and they make up excuses.
- He turns to his Goods but he tells him that it is not his duty to save Everyman´s soul.
- In his desperation he goes to his Good Deeds who is willing to come with him but too weak because of Everyman´s sins. In order to strengthen Good Deeds he receives -supported by Knowledge- the sacraments via Confession and the gown of contrition and Good Deeds recovers.
- Then he calls Beauty, Strength, Discretion and his Five Wits who accompany him to his grave after he has received the last sacraments from a priest. But when they see the grave they desert him also and only Good Deeds stays with him, though Knowledge accompanies him to the graveside. Interpretation:
- The allegorical figures in Everyman represent wordly and spiritual values and are rather untypical for morality plays in which vices and virtues dominate.
- Everyman is less typical of the genre because it omits the fall and life in sin and instead dramatizes Everyman´s summons by Death to account for his sins, i.e. the play describes the dying of Everyman.
- The play is limited in action and in the number of characters (16 vs. more than 30 in Castle of Perserverance). The emphasis is put on the didactic impulse given through the messenger in the very beginning and the Doctor in the end who sum up the moral for the audience who are considered sinners who should be instructed in moral behaviour according to Christian beliefs.
- Everyman himself is both a personification of the entire human race and an individual actor and represents the fate of each individual, which will meet at death the Last Judgement.
- Everyman’s fear of death is a universal emotion, but his spiritual victory over death is a triumphant expression of Christian faith and Catholic doctrine.
- Everyman is subdivided in two sets of meetings with the potential companions: first he meets the “goods of fortune” that are external to the protagonist and then the “goods of the soul” that are integral to him.
- The parts of the sacrament of penance- contrition, confession, absolution, extreme unction and satisfaction- are all worked through in the play.
- Everyman has to overcome five temptations infedility, despair, impatience, attachment to wordly things and spiritual pride (or vainglory). In this respect the play follows the at the time well-known treatises Ars Moriendi. After overcoming four of the temptations with the help of the church he relies too much on himself and comes close to the sin of presumption. But then Beauty, Strength, Discretion and Five Wits leave him and the following shock rescues him from vainglory.
- Apart from intending to ease the fear of dying the play tries to teach the audience certain moral values. The moral can be summed up in the statements that “we can take with us from this world nothing that we have received, only what we have given” and that “we have to commend our soul into the hands of God and reach a healthy state of uncertainty, i.e. a proper mixture of hope and fear”.
“Everyman”, Everyman and Medieval Miracle Plays, ed. A.C. Cawley (London, 2003)., 08.01.04
King, Pamela M. “Morality Plays”, The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Theatre, ed. Richard Beadle (Cambridge, 1996).
Spinrad, Phoebe S.. “The Last Temptation of Everyman”, Philological Quarterly 64 (1985).
Hi dear.. i have searched the net and found a reasonable explanation for miracle plays in medieval ages. i
Miracle or Morality Plays are generic terms given to vernacular religious dramas of medieval times (from the 5th century to about the 15th century). These plays, performed in most countries across Europe, including Spain, developed from the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church after 1210 when a papal edict forbade members of the clergy from appearing on a stage in public. Such plays had considerable influence on the work of the great English dramatists of the 1500s and 1600s.
When the simple scenes from the Bible that had become part of the liturgy could no longer be performed by the priests early in the 13th century, the miracle plays came into existence. These plays had as subject matter the miracles performed by the saints or, more frequently, scenes from the Old and New Testaments. Miracle plays, also known as Saint Plays, in crude form were presented at Easter and on other holy days. They gained a formalized structure in the late 13th or early 14th century and reached the height of their popularity in the 15th and 16th centuries. Miracle plays dealing with the legends of the saints were less realistic and more religious in tone than those concerned with biblical episodes, and were eventually superseded by the latter.
The plays were generally given in cycles, or sequences of related scenes, each of which required only a short time to perform. Often, each scene was acted by members of one of the trade guilds (then known as mysteries
) of the town. The cycles presented the Christian history of God and humanity, from the creation of human beings and the world to final judgement. The important cycles, named after the towns in which they were notably performed, are the Chester (25 scenes), the Wakefield (30 scenes), the York (48 scenes), the Norwich, and the Coventry plays. The cycles were generally performed outdoors on festival days and particularly on the feast of Corpus Christi
. Each guild acted its assigned scene on its own wagon or float on wheels, which could be moved from one place to another for repeated performances.
To the scenes from the Bible the anonymous playwrights added interludes consisting of realistic comedy based on situations and ideas of a contemporary nature. The miracle play, therefore, was not only a biblical drama
or scene, but also included scenes of realistic medieval comedy. A well-known miracle play is the Second Shepherd's Play
of the Wakefield Cycle. This story of the shepherds watching their flock in the fields on the night of Christ's birth is enlivened by the comic episode in which one of the sheep is stolen; the thief hides the sheep in a cradle in his home and, brought to bay, pretends the little animal is a baby girl.
The term mystery play,
also called a Corpus Christi play or simply mystery,
is sometimes used synonymously with miracle play. Some literary authorities make a distinction between the two, designating as mystery plays all types of early medieval drama
that draw their subject matter from Gospel events and as miracle plays all those dealing with legends of the saints.
Sometimes known simply as a morality, the morality play was most popular in the 15th and early 16th centuries. It was designed to instruct audiences in the Christian way of life and the Christian attitude towards death. The general theme of the morality play is the conflict between good and evil for the human soul; the play always ends with the saving of the soul. The characters of the morality play are not the saints or biblical personages of the miracle play, but personifications of such abstractions as flesh, gluttony, lechery, sloth, pride, envy, hope, charity, riches, and strength.
Some of the moralities were anonymous; others were by known authors. The best known of the former type is Everyman
(late 15th century), which probably was derived from a Dutch source but was thoroughly Anglicized. In the play the protagonist Everyman learns that everything material he has gained in life deserts him as he journeys into the Valley of Death;n the end only the allegorical personage Good Deeds accompanies him المسرحية الأخلاقية أو الأعاجيبية هي مصطلحات لمسرحيات دينية متعددة في العصور الوسطى مثلت في دول عدة في أوروبابما فيها اسبانيا ونشأت عن القداس في الكنيسة الكاثوليكية بعد عام1210م حينما منع المرسوم البابوي رجال الدين المسيحي منالظهور على المسرح أمام عامة الناس.وكان لهذه المسرحيات عميق الأثر على عمل كتاب مسرحيين فى ذلك العصر
هاي شباب وصبايا هاد موضوع الروايات لماده المسرح انشالله تستفادو منو:
المسرحيه الاولى هي مسرحيه(every man)اي(الانسان
هالمسرحيه بتحكي عن شخص بمر بعدة مواقف ومراحل لاكتشاف الذات بعد ما بيضهرلو الموت وبهددو انو رح ياخدو وبطالبو بدفتر حساباتو بعد ما تدرسو هي الروايه رح انحسو انو بتنطبق على كل واحد فينا:وهاد الرابط لتحملو:
every man http://rapidshare.com/files/19959144...y_man.doc.html
بالنسبه لمسرحيه الدكتور فاوستس هي بتحكي عن طبيب وصل لكل مراحل العلم والطب وتمكن منه لدرحه انو وصل لمرحله ما عاد اكتفى بها الشي وصار يسعى ليوصل لشي خارق للطبيعه ونتيجه لها الشيببيع روحو للشيطان مقابل 24 سنه بيحققلو فيها ابليس كل شي بدو ياه
الدكتور فاوستس http://rapidshare.com/files/19959382...1587_.doc.html
أما هديتي الأخيرة إليكم وسبقت أن وجدت بالقسم فهي ترجمة مسرحية شيكسبير العظيمة
هاملت ولا داعي أن أشرح عنها لأن الجميع يعرفها http://rannd.com/up//view.php?file=f5a7abf2c2
بالتوفيق وانشالله بتستفيدو
ماحصلتلك باللغة العربية غير التالي:
لدينا العديد من المسرحيات الأخلاقية وخير مثال نجده في مسرحية (Everyman)، أي (جميع البشر)، التي كتبت في نهاية القرن الخامس عشر(5). وتمثل هذه المسرحية مصير بني البشر حين يداهمهم الموت حيث لا ينفعهم لا مال ولا أصدقاء بل أعمالهم الصالحة فقط. وتكمن أهمية هذه المسرحية في رسالتها التعليمية التي تنقلها شخصيات رمزية (أليغورية)، أي أن أسماءها تدل على أفعالها. وعلى الرغم من جديتها في وعظها فقد احتوت المسرحية الأخلاقية على شخصية الشرير (the Vice) وشخصية الشيطان (the Devil)، وجل همهما دب الفتنة والعداء بين الآخرين.
حاولي تترجمين ملخص المسرحية ...
Synopsis Of EVERYMAN:
This morality play seeks to answer the important religious question: "What must a man do to be saved?" God sends Death to summon Everyman, who represents all mankind. Good and Evil will be tallied like pluses and minuses in an account book. The play is the story of Everyman's journey to this final reckoning. Along the way, Everyman tries to convince other characters to accompany him in the hope of improving his account. The other characters are also allegorical; that is, each character personifies an abstract idea. The conflict between good and evil is dramatized by the interactions between characters. The play shows us not only how every man should meet death but also how every man should live.
Everyman is a dramatized allegory. An allegory is a narrative in which the characters and action, and sometimes the setting as well, have two levels of meaning. The first level is literal -- a man is going on a trip. The second level is symbolic -- Everyman's life is a journey from birth to death, and every man makes this same trip. An allegory must make sense at both levels. All of the literal pieces will fit together to tell a story -- what happens. In addition, all of the symbolic pieces will fit together to teach a moral -- what the story means.
For example, John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress is an allegory teaching the doctrines of Christian salvation. The hero, named Christian, is warned by Evangelist to flee the City of Destruction and seek the Celestial City. En route Christian encounters such characters as Faithful, the Giant Despair, and Mr. Worldly Wiseman. He passes through places like the Slough of Despond, the Valley of the Shadow of Death, and Vanity Fair. On the literal level, this is an exciting adventure story. On the symbolic level, however, each adventure also teaches a moral lesson.
Everyman: Typical human being who has neglected his spiritual life but repents his sins in time to be saved.
God: Just but merciful Supreme Being.
Death: Messenger commanded by God to summon Everyman.
Fellowship, Kindred, Cousin, Material Goods: Earthly acquaintances of Everyman who abandon him in his time of need.
Good Deeds: The only friend willing to accompany Everyman to the afterlife.
Knowledge: Character that tells Everyman what he must do to obtain salvation.
Confession: Character representing the sacrament of penance. Everyman confesses his sins to this character.
Discretion, Strength, Everyman's Five Wits, Beauty: Earthly acquaintances of Everyman who abandon him in his time of need.
Angel: Creature that welcomes Everyman to the celestial realm.
The Angel appears briefly at the play's conclusion to accept Everyman into God's domain. Because of his virtue, Everyman will be accepted immediately into heaven with God.
Beauty is one of the companions that Everyman calls forth to accompany him for part of his journey to God. And while beauty can offer some comfort to Everyman, it is the first to depart when man begins the final journey to death. Confession
Knowledge leads Everyman to Confession. Confession represents man's best opportunity for salvation, since acknowledging Everyman's sins and asking God for forgiveness is an important element of Catholicism. Although Knowledge can accompany Everyman part way on his journey, Knowledge cannot complete the journey with him.